By J. Craig Robertson (auth.)
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Additional resources for A Guide to Radiation Protection
For external sources, the factor is 1 and can be ignored. Dose rate The roentgen, the rad and the rem are the units of exposure, absorbed energy/g and dose equivalent respectively. However an absorbed dose of 10 rad or a dose equivalent of 10 rem may be received 42 A GUIDE TO RADIATION PROTECTION over different times and in specifying radiation areas, it is the rate at which radiation will be received which is important. The dose rate is expressed in rem/h, the absorbed dose rate in rad/h and the exposure in R/h.
We can use the idea of half thickness with neutrons. For example, for 8 MeV neutrons, the half thickness of water is approximately 7 em. Hence 14 em of water between some object and a source emitting 8 MeV neutrons will reduce the number of neutrons falling on the object to one-quarter of the value when the water is not there. 32 A GUIDE TO RADIATION PROTECTION The idea of half thickness is not used with charged particles since, as was mentioned in chapter 4, charged particles are either stopped in material or else they all pass through.
For example, the gamma-rays from a cobalt-60 source have a half thickness in lead of 1· 6 em but a half thickness in water of approximately 16 em. Thus 1· 6 em of lead or 16 em of water have the same shielding effect. One half thickness reduces the intensity of gamma-rays by a factor of2. Two half thicknesses reduce the intensity of gamma-rays by a factor of 4. Three half thicknesses reduce the intensity of gamma-rays by a factor of 8. Thus each time a half thickness is added to a shield, the intensity of the gamma-rays at some point outside the shield is reduced by a factor of 2.
A Guide to Radiation Protection by J. Craig Robertson (auth.)