By Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith
Half I. creation: 1. advent F. M. Gradstein; 2. Chronostratigraphy - linking time and rock F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; half II. innovations and techniques: three. Biostratigraphy F. M. Gradstein, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; four. Earth's orbital parameters and cycle stratigraphy L. A. Hinnov; five. The geomagnetic polarity time scale J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; 6. Radiogenic isotope geochronology M. Villeneuve; 7. strong isotopes J. M. McArthur and R. J. Howarth; eight. Geomathematics F. P. Agterberg; half III. Geologic classes: nine. The Precambrian: the Archaen and Proterozoic eons L. J. Robb, A. H. Knoll, okay. A. Plumb, G. A. Shields, H. Strauss and J. Veizer; 10. towards a 'natural' Precambrian time scale W. Bleeker; eleven. The Cambrian interval J. H. Shergold and R. A. Cooper; 12. The Ordovician interval R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; thirteen. The Silurian interval M. J. Melchin, R. A. Cooper and P. M. Sadler; 14. The Devonian interval M. R. condo and F. M. Gradstein; 15. The Carboniferous interval V. Davydov, B. R. Wardlaw and F. M. Gradstein; sixteen. The Permian interval B. R. Wardlaw, V. Davydov and F. M. Gradstein; 17. The Triassic interval J. G. Ogg; 18. The Jurassic interval J. G. Ogg; 19. The Cretaceous interval J. G. Ogg, F. P. Agterberg and F. M. Gradstein; 20. The Paleogene interval H. P. Luterbacher, J. R. Ali, H. Brinkhuis, F. M. Gradstein, J. J. Hooker, S. Monechi, J. G. Ogg, J. Powell, U. Rohl, A. Sanfilippo, and B. Schmitz; 21. The Neogene interval L. Lourens, F. Hilgen, N. J. Shackleton, J. Laskar and D. Wilson; 22. The Pleistocene and Holocene epochs P. Gibbard and T. van Kolfschoten; half IV. precis: 23. building and precis of the geologic time scale F. M.. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg and A. G. Smith; Appendices; Bibliography; Stratigraphic index; normal index
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Cenoman. Cenoman. Cenoman. 96 96 Cenoman. 97 Cenoman. 5 Cenoman. 100 83 83 84 84 250 Introduction whole-rock samples. A good review in this respect for the Devonian is found in Williams et al. (2000), whose study points out that it is clearly desirable to combine high analytical precision with narrow biostratigraphic control to provide the most useful points for time scale calibration. These authors make a case that the Carboniferous–Devonian boundary is near 362 Ma instead of near 354 Ma or even younger, as shown in more recent scales of Fig.
2). g. ). The requirement for continuous sedimentation across the GSSP level and the bracketing correlation markers is to avoid assigning a boundary to a known “gap” in the geologic record. This requirement has generally eliminated most historical stratotypes for stages, which were commonly delimited by ﬂooding or exposure surfaces and formally represent synthems. g. the revised stage nomenclature for the Ordovician and Cambrian Periods), or an historical name is given a slightly new meaning to update its practical usage.
G. , 1882, pp. 297–411), and annexes contained national contributions toward standardization of stratigraphic classiﬁcation, etc. (pp. 429–658). In spite of this promising start, the IGCs did not have the continuing organization to carry these proposals through, except for the commissions established to produce international maps. org). , 1990, p. 2. 21 setting out the stratigraphic principles, terminology, and classiﬁcatory procedures were prepared by the International Commission on Stratigraphic Terminology, created in 1952 by the 19th IGC in Algiers, and now the International Subcommission on Stratigraphic Classiﬁcation (ISSC) under the International Commission of Stratigraphy (ICS) of the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS).
A geologic time scale 2004 by Felix M. Gradstein, James G. Ogg, Alan G. Smith